Author: Sahani Saxena

Bogor Agricultural University

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The Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) or the Institut Pertanian Bogor was founded in 1963, as a state-run agricultural university with the aim of strengthening food security, promoting bioenergy, protecting the regional environment and alleviating poverty. It is the only state university with a focus on tropical agriculture and life sciences – and is world-renowned in this field.

Based in the city of Bogor, Indonesia, it is approximately 60km from the capital city, Jakarta. IPB comprises five campuses: Baranangsiang, Dramaga, Gunung Gede, Cilibende and Taman Kencana. There is a research centre, university farm, animal hospital, student dormitory and library.

It has nine faculties: agriculture, veterinary medicine, fishery and marine science, animal science, forestry, agriculture technology and engineering, mathematics and natural science, economics and management and most recently, the faculty of human ecology.

The faculty of human ecology focuses on nutritional sciences, family and consumer sciences and communication and community development sciences. It is Indonesia’s first and only faculty of this kind and is one of three in South East Asia.

A seed centre is being developed at Leuwikopo, Bogor to solve Indonesia’s seed shortages and reduce the need for importation. As well as developing agricultural and plantation seeds, it will also focus on animal husbandry and fishery.

IPB has worked to develop and maintain links with foreign universities such as the University of Wisconsin, the University of Tokyo, the University of Adelaide and the University of Gottingen.

Notable alumni include the sixth Indonesian president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and several Ministers of Agriculture for Indonesia.

Known as “The City of Rain” due to its high annual rainfall, Bogor City is a popular summer resort. The most popular attraction is the Bogor Botanical Gardens, which is home to 15,000 plants from all over the globe.

Botanic Garden Developments in Indonesia

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International Seminar in Bogor

From 4 to 9 July 1994 an international seminar was held by Kebun Raya to consider the role of flora in the world economy. This was the second international conference organized by Kebun Raya in the last few years. The previous conference, held in July 1992 focussed on the topic of developing flora conservation strategies in Asia. Proceedings of the first Kebun Raya Bogor Conference have now been published as a 360 page volume entitled “Strategies for Flora Conservation in Asia” (Suhirman, et al. (eds.), 1994).

The 1994 seminar was preceded by a three-day tour of forestry sites in Indonesia, followed by a two day seminar in Bogor, a formal visit with President Soeharto and finally a closing ceremony at Cibodas Botanic Gardens. During the conference fourteen presenters from Indonesia, Australia, China, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States presented papers on the economic, botanic, genetic, social and cultural significance of flora in local, national and global economies. The presentations covered historical and traditional (aboriginal) plant use, sustainable use of forest resources, future priorities for research, the importance of native plants and non-timber forest products, genetic resource conservation and networking. The role of botanic gardens in these fields was given particular attention.

Network Established

One of the major recommendations of the 1992 Bogor conference was that a plant conservation network be established in Indonesia (see Botanic Gardens Conservation News 2(1): 30-34). In 1994, this new initiative, the Indonesian Network for Plant Conservation (INetPC) was launched. It is primarily to facilitate communication and cooperation between conservation organisations, groups, institutions and individuals working in Indonesia and their international counterparts. The network will provide a quarterly newsletter Eksplorasi, a membership database, resource library, annual conferences and seminars and informal meetings. The first two issues of Eksplorasi were published in 1994. A national headquarters has been set up in the Registration Building of Kebun Raya Bogor and members are being recruited. Annual subscription rates are as follows:

Individuals: Indonesia: Rp 5,000; International: US$ 10.
Organizations: Indonesia: Rp 15,000; International US$ 20.

Cooperative Agreement

Following the conference in Bogor the text of a cooperative agreement between Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Kebun Raya Indonesia and the Indonesian Network for Plant Conservation was finalized in July between Suhirman (KRI), Jeanine Pfeiffer (INetPC) and Peter Wyse Jackson (BGCI). This cooperative agreement includes the opening of BGCI’s Indonesian Regional Office at Bogor.
The agreement also includes the following provisions:

  • INetPC and BGCI will promote membership in each other’s organizations and exchange annual information and data.
  • INetPC and BGCI will co-sponsor seminars, meetings and workshops of national, regional and international scope.
  • KRI and BGCI will jointly undertake regional training initiatives for documentation of botanic garden collections and environmental education.

CONCLUDING STATEMENT OF THE KEBUN RAYA INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR

The Strategic Role of Flora

1. From 4-9 July 1994, an International conference entitled “The Role of Flora in the World Economy and its Conservation” was organized and hosted by Kebun Raya Indonesia with the support of the Indonesian Forestry Community (MPI) and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Delegates from Indonesia and many other countries met to consider the economic importance of flora and its sustainable use for the people of the world and the preservation of the natural environment. Specifically, the participants discussed the unique role of botanic gardens in plant resource conservation and utilization.

2. Flora has a vital and highly strategic role to play in every country’s economy. For this reason it needs to be nurtured and protected as a present-day and future resource for development. But many plant species are under threat of extinction.

3. During the seminar, the participants highlighted the international significance and importance of Kebun Raya Indonesia (KRI). They recognized that it maintains one of the largest collections of living plant resources in the world and is recognized as a leading institution of global importance for the study and conservation of flora.

Strategic Actions

4. In Indonesia, Kebun Raya needs to concentrate its energies to undertake priority strategic actions:

  • Flora conservation
  • The study of flora utilization to support the Indonesian economy.

5. In order to carry out these actions effectively, Kebun Raya Indonesia needs:

  • support for its programmes in research, exploration, collection and conservation of plants of actual or potential economic importance to Indonesia
  • financial and other human and physical resources to build its institutional capacity to become increasingly effective in these vital roles
  • assistance in its efforts to build on co-operation between the many institutions and individuals active in studying, conserving and using plant resources in Indonesia for the good of the nation.

6. Kebun Raya Indonesia is involved in a diverse array of projects relating to the conservation and promotion of Indonesian flora. Through the project Pelestarian Flora Indonesia, KRI has conducted a series of explorations to the Outer Islands, resulting in the addition of thousands of new species to the vast KRI collection.

Cooperation

7. Special cooperation between KRI and MPI (Masyarakat Perhutanan Indonesia) produced this conference, which included a tour of Indonesia’s production forest, the 1992 Kebun Raya Conference, and exploration. A cooperative training effort between Botanic Gardens Conservation International and KRI is being planned to enhance KRI’s capacity to document and inventory its ever-expanding collections. This conference has also produced a memorandum of understanding between the Australian Network for Plant Conservation and the new Indonesian Network for Plant Conservation (INetPC), based at KRI.

8. In cooperation with Rimbawan Muda Indonesia and Klub Indonesia Hijau (Bogor), KRI has embarked on an environmental education project for the school children of Jakarta. Together with the Northern Territory Conservation Commission of Darwin, Australia, KRI has produced an ethnobotanical documentation of traditional plant knowledge from villages in Ciamis and Tasikmalaya (West Java).

National Commission On Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPS)

9. In order to further KRI’s contribution to enhancing the role of flora in the Indonesian economy, we propose that KRI help to establish a National Commission on Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) which would coordinate research on NTFPs in Indonesia, with the objective of stimulating the commercialization of NTFPs. utilizing the infrastructure developed through Proyek Pelestarian Flora Indonesia, KRI can contribute infrastructure and experience to the work already completed or in progress by institutions including the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), USAID, the Ford Foundation and Pelangi Indonesia.

10. The participants propose that the National Commission on Non-Timber Forest products be financed by The Government of Indonesia, using “Dana Reboisasi” funds.

Jokowi gives Obama homely welcome at Bogor Palace

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Former US President Barack Obama (left) walking with Indonesian President Joko Widodo during their meeting at the Botanical Garden near the presidential palace in Bogor, Indonesia on June 30, 2017.PHOTO: REUTERS

JAKARTA (Jakarta Post/Asia News Network) – Indonesian President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo gave former United States President Barrack Obama – and his lookalike – a modest yet warm welcome at Bogor Palace on Friday (June 30).

No reception was held for the former president, who spent part of his childhood in Jakarta, as he was visiting in a private capacity as part of a nine-day vacation in Indonesia that started on June 23.

Only Jokowi, First Lady Iriana and their youngest son Kaesang Pangarep greeted Obama on the terrace of Bogor Palace at 3 pm.

Standing next to the car, Obama exchanged a few words with Jokowi for a few seconds before the President introduced Iriana to Obama.

Jokowi later introduced Kaesang and explained a few things about him to Obama, who later gave a thumbs up to Kaesang for the explanation.

After the brief exchange, Obama, who wore a blue long-sleeved shirt, embraced Jokowi and walked next to him into the palace and into the Teratai Room to sign the guestbook.

Jokowi later drove Obama in a golf cart to the Grand Garden Restaurant, located in the palace compound, where the two talked for 30 minutes and enjoyed Indonesian food before Obama left for Jakarta.

IPB Researchers Develop Low Calorie Margarine Products

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Nutritional recommendations related to fat consumption have been widely practiced, one of which is the need to reduce the consumption of trans fats and saturated fats. The negative effects of trans fats and saturated fats on cardiovascular health are related to its role in raising bad cholesterol. Therefore, one of the efforts made is to replace transfats and saturated fats with unsaturated fats.

Margarine is one of the fatty foods that are often consumed by the community. Margarine can be consumed directly as a spread, or as a mixture in the process of cooking. Margarine serves as a heat conductor medium. Fat addition aims to improve the texture and taste of food.

Consumption of margarine as one source of fat can not be avoided because fat is beneficial to improve the aroma and delicacy of food. People’s awareness of choosing foods with added nutritional value is increasing now, so it becomes an opportunity to develop margarine products, especially in terms of decreasing the calorie value of the margarine.

This is the underlying team of researchers Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Prof. Dr. Ahmad Sulaeman and Reisi Nurdiani, SP. M.Si, with the Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, Bogor Agricultural University (FEMA IPB), Theresia Dwi Wahyuni ​​conducted a study on making low-calorie margarine with the addition of beeswax and palm oil based, coconut oil and soybean oil.

Beeswax is a natural animal fat that can not be digested by human digestive system, so it does not contribute to the amount of calories absorbed in the body’s metabolic system. When beeswax is used as the basic ingredient of margarine, it will produce high melting point, so it will affect the texture produced. Therefore, it must be mixed with other components in order to lower the melting point.

This research is divided into several stages: beeswax preparation, margarine modification formulation of three types of vegetable oil, organoleptic test, physical and chemical characteristics analysis and nutritional value information analysis for selected margarine product. There are two tested formulas made with three basic types of vegetable oils such as palm oil, coconut oil and soybean oil and each vegetable oil plus beeswax by 25 percent and 35 percent.

The test results show that the selected formula is margarine with soybean oil and beeswax as much as 25 percent. The selected formula has a melting point of 54.1 degrees Celsius and an emulsion stability of one hundred percent. Selected margarine contains 35 percent energy content, 33 percent total fat, 73 percent unsaturated fat and 24 percent sodium which is lower than commercial margarine. The margin also qualifies claims for reduced calories and fewer fat. (FY / ris)

Bogor Botanical Gardens proposed as UNESCO world heritage site

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Historic building: The Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) is set to make a proposal to UNESCO to seek recognition of Lady Olivia Monument in the Bogor Botanical Gardens as a World Heritage Site in the category of the historical heritage building. (JP/Theresia Sufa)

The Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) is set to make a proposal to UNESCO that Bogor Botanical Gardens be recognized as a World Heritage Site because of its vast plant collection and the historical value of its buildings, landscape and landmarks.

“We have been considering proposing that the Bogor Botanical Gardens be recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since last year,” said LIPI deputy chairperson for biodiversity sciences, Enny Sudarmonowati, during a discussion on Wednesday.

She said it was quite disturbing for biodiversity experts in Indonesia to see that the Singapore Botanic Gardens had been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site even though its plant collection was not as vast as Bogor Botanical Gardens’.

“Therefore, we are committed to fighting for the inclusion of Bogor Botanical Gardens as a UNESCO World Heritage Site,” said Enny.

Currently, LIPI and Bogor Botanical Gardens researchers are discussing which parts of the gardens will be proposed to UNESCO for recognition as World Heritage Sites. They include three buildings for the category of historical heritage buildings, namely the Treub Laboratory, the Nusa Indah Guest House and the Lady Olivia Monument. For heritage landscape, they will propose Astrid Avenue, the Hanging Bridge and the Palm Tree Park. Meanwhile, Teysman Park will be proposed as a heritage landmark.

In the Indonesia National Committee for UNESCO’s (KNIU) tentative list, 19 buildings and national parks are being proposed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. (ebf)

Unique landmark: Visitors enjoy the beauty of Teysman Park at the Bogor Botanical Gardens on Nov.25. Unique landmark: Visitors enjoy the beauty of Teysman Park at the Bogor Botanical Gardens on Nov.25. (JP/Theresia Sufa)

Bogor Palace : the history of the heart of Bogor

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Bogor Palace is one of six presidential palaces of Indonesia. It is located at the center of the rain city. Its location is side by side with the famous Bogor Botanical Gardens and actually the Gardens are the part of the palace itself.

The palace is on corner of the cross sections of three main streets in Bogor i.e. Sudirman , Juanda, and Jalak Harupat streets. It occupies 28.8 hectare of land. On its vast front yard, there are hundreds of deer living peacefully.

The Bogor Palace can be said as the heart of Bogor, I mean for both Regency and Municipalities. This is not only because of the location but also because in fact Bogor was built using this palace as its nucleus.

The establishment of Bogor Palace

Originally, there was no intention from the builder to set up a palace as a palace. The person who instructed to build a palace intended only to build a mansion.

Governor General of East Hndia from Netherland at that time (1744) , Gustaaf Willem Baron von Imhoff just wanted to escape from the crowded and busy Batavia (currently known as Jakarta, the Capital of Indonesia). He felt Jakarta was too hot and too noisy. Then, he searched to find a place for his runaway from the noisy city.

After searching to many places, finally Mr Imhoff found the place. He was so overwhelmed by the panorama and also the quietness of a place named as “Kampoeng Baroe” (the new village). He chose this place to build a place for him to escape from Batavia.

The 3 floor storey mansion was finally built based on his instruction. It replicated the Bienhiem Palace of Duke Marbourough. The mansion was completed one year after i.e. 1745. It was named as Buitenzorg that meant “A Peaceful Place” or “A Place without worry”. Just exactly what he had looked for. That is why people in Bogor sometimes mention Buitenzorg when they want to refer to their city.

 The Bogor Palace between 1750 – Indonesian Independent

Von Imhoff died in 1750 and the successor was Jacob Mosse. During his tenure, the Buitenzorg mansion suffered heavy damage. This was caused by the War of Banten that involved VOC (Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie).

The War of Banten itsels was actually a civil war between the people of Islamic Banten Kingdom and its king i.e. Sultan Haji. Being cornered by his own people, the king turned his head to the colonialist for help. Finally the war was won but with the result the damaged mansion. After the war, the mansion was immediately repaired and renovated.

The mansion fate was changed drastically 50 years after its establishment. On the hand of Herman Willems Daendels (1808-1811), or known in history book of Indonesia as Daendels. He was known for his cruelty and stern attitude.

In the year of 1808, Daendels set up the longest road in Indonesia called as De Grote Postweg or The Great Postway. The road stretched from Anyer in West Java to Panarukan in East java. It stretched approximately one thousand kilometers. The road was built in short time, only in one year.

The road passed through Bogor. Some parts of the Great Postway half circled the mansion. The parts of the road in Bogor are now known as Sudirman , Juanda and Suryakencana Streets.

In 1817, under Baron van der Capellen, the mansion once again got further expansion and got additional hall. During this period, the mansion was separated from its back yard. The backyard was made as Bogor Botanical Gardens.During his tenure Daendels also renovated the mansion. The mansion got additional wings on the left and right side. Its role was also changed as Daendels used this mansion to conduct meetings with high rank officials of East India government. During this period 6 pairs of deer in type of Axis Axis, white spotted deers were brought to fill in the front yard.

Unfortunately in 1834, once again the mansion heavily destroyed. This time , the reason was not because of war. The anger of Mount Salak was the culprit. On Oct 10th, 1834 the mount erupted and almost annihilated the palace.

It took quite a while before Charles Ferdinand Pahud de Montager ( 1856 – 1861 ) took the reign in East Hindia. He re-build the mansion to its current shape.

His successor in 1870 Pieter Mijer decided to officially use the mansion as a permanent residence of Governor General. This was the time, the mansion was changed to be a palace. This continued until the end of Netherland era in Indonesia in 1942.

In total the Bogor Palace had lived under 44 different Governor Generals of Dutch colonialist since its establishment in 1745 until 1942

 Bogor Palace 1942-1945

In 1942, during the World War II, Japanese troop entered Indonesia and conquered the Netherland Army. The Palace was handled over to Japanese troop as well.

During this time, the Bogor Palace was used as an office for Kempetai, the Military Police.

Bogor Palace 1945-1950

After the World War II was over, the palace became one place that was the maintarget of Indonesian Freedom fighter to be occupied. Finally in 1948 it was occupied. One year Later , it was handled over to the formal Government Indonesia after the Recognition of Indonesian sovereignty.

In 1950, the Bogor Palace was formally assigned as one of the Presidential Palaces of Indonesia.

Since 1950, the Bogor Palace has been involved in many important moments of Indonesia. It was the place used to prepare the Asia Africa Conference in 1955.

Bogor Palace after 1950

In March 11th , 1966, it was the silent witness of the fall of Soekarno’s regime. In this palace, the Supersemar (The Order of March Eleventh) was typed. It was the sign of the transfer of the power and the starting point of Soeharto’s regime that lasted for the next 32 years.

In 1994 , the Bogor Palace was used as a place for the meeting of leaders from Asia Pasific Economy Cooperation (APEC). It once again was the witness when the “Bogor Goals” achieved. The goals were important because it was the basis of the Free Trade agreement among all APEC country members.

Epilogue

Originally I would like to make this first post of English Edition of this blog short. However while typing, I could not stop to write. I would like people to know about how important the Bogor Palace for us, Bogor people and also Indonesian.

It was built as a mansion for leisure of one person but eventually it can not be put aside from all books of Indonesia and Bogor history.

So if you have a chance to Bogor someday, please do not forget to at least take a glance to Bogor Palace . It is one of a must see place during in Bogor. If you come in June 3rd, you may be fortunate to see the inside of the Palace. It is the founding date of Bogor and the Palace opens for public for few days.